Wheatfield had its start in the early 1880s by the building of the railroad through that territory. The Wheatfield post office was established in 1882. Wheatfield was named from its location in the Wheat Belt.
Wheatfield has a total area of 0.56 square miles (1.45 km2), all land.
The Kankakee Valley School Corporation serves Wheatfield. Wheatfield Elementary School is located in and serves Wheatfield. Kankakee Valley Intermediate School, Kankakee Valley Middle School, and Kankakee Valley High School are located in Wheatfield Township and serve Wheatfield.
Wheatfield has a public library, a branch of the Jasper County Public Library.